Michigan Sales and Use Tax & Audit Guide
This guide is for businesses that need straightforward answers on the following Michigan Sales and Use Tax subjects:
- Should I collect Michigan sales tax?
- What is Michigan use tax, and should I pay or collect it?
- I collected Michigan sales tax and did not remit it, now what ?
- I received a Notice that I’m being audited by the Michigan Department of Treasury, now what?
- Guidance on fighting a sales tax assessment in Michigan.
Who Needs to Collect Michigan Sales and Use Tax?
Like most states, to be subject to Michigan sales tax collection and its rules, your business must:
1) Have nexus with Michigan, and
2) Sell or use something that is subject to Michigan sales tax.
How Is Nexus Established in Michigan?
- Obtaining and maintaining an office or space in Michigan to conduct business
- Having independent sales reps, employees, or agents conducting business, permanently or temporarily, in the state, including soliciting sales, collecting on current or delinquent accounts delivering property, or taking orders for taxable items in Michigan.
- Performing services, such as assembling, installing, servicing, or repairing products in Michigan.
- Providing services, such as maintenance or repairs to property.
- Providing customers technical assistance or services including, but not limited to, engineering assistance, design service, quality control, product inspections, or similar services.
- Owning, renting, or leasing real property or tangible personal property in Michigan, including a computer server or software to solicit orders for taxable items.
- Using your company-owned or leased truck to deliver goods to customers within Michigan.
- Maintaining inventory in Michigan using a third-party fulfillment service, such as Fulfilled by Amazon (“FBA”).
Additionally, business that do not have a physical presence in Michigan, can establish economic nexus by exceeding a certain annual sales threshold in the state. See the next section for details.
Effective September 30, 2018, Michigan requires that an out of state business (a.k.a. remote sellers) register with the Michigan Department of Treasury to collect and remit sales and use tax if the business has a total sales revenue in the state of more than $100,000 in the preceding twelve calendar months.
Total sales revenue, as defined by Michigan, includes the following:
- Gross revenue from all taxable and nontaxable sales of tangible personal property and services in Michigan.
- Any separately stated handling, transportation, installation, and other similar fees collected by the seller in connection with the sale.
- All sales for resale and sales to exempt entities.
- As of January 1, 2020, total Michigan revenue must include the aggregate sum of all sales made on all mediums, including all marketplaces and the remote seller's own website.
Once the $100,000 sales threshold is exceeded, the seller must obtain a permit and begin collecting Michigan sales and use tax no later than the first day of the fourth month after the month in which the threshold was exceeded.
Michigan Sales Made Through Marketplace Providers
If your business sells on Amazon or a similar marketplace provider, you may not have to collect sales and use tax on those sales. Specifically, if the marketplace provider certifies they are collecting and reporting sales tax, you are off the hook. However, such sales may count towards your total sales threshold, potentially requiring your business to collect tax on sales made directly through your website or other marketplaces.
For more information, see Marketplace Facilitator & Market Seller Nexus
Which Sales Are Subject to Michigan Sales Tax?
If you have nexus in Michigan, the next step is to determine whether the products or services you sell are subject to Michigan sales and use tax. Like most states, unless an item is specifically exempt, sales and rentals of tangible personal property are subject to Michigan sales tax.
While the general rules seem straightforward, the application of Michigan’s sales tax rules and their nuances, complexities, and application to your business can get complicated. We recommend scheduling a time to review your specific situation with one of our sales tax professionals.
- Industrial Processors
Generally, services are not subject to Michigan sales tax. However, the types of services listed here are subject to Michigan sales tax:
- Amusement Services
- Automotive Services
- Business Services
- Construction Services
- Finance Services
- Information Services
- Insurance Services
- Laundry, Cleaning and Garment Services
- Motor Vehicle Parking and Storage Services
- Personal Services
- Real Property Services
- Repair and Fabrication Services
- Security Services
- Telephone Answering Services
- Taxable Labor – Photographers, Draftsmen, Artists, Tailors, Etc.
More information on the taxability of these types of services can be here.
Michigan broadly treats Software as a Service (SaaS) as part of data processing services and is subject to Michigan sales tax. Likewise, software that is downloaded and digital products are taxable in Michigan.
Michigan takes the position that delivery and shipping charges connected with taxable items or services are taxable. If, however, the product being sold is exempt, the delivery is also exempt.
While the general sales tax rules seem straightforward, the application of those rules can get tricky when gray areas come up. These guides were developed by the Michigan Department of Treasury to provide some industry specific guidance.
- Michigan Sales Tax Exemptions for Agricultural and Timber Industries
- Michigan Guide for Sales Tax Exemptions for Data Centers
- Michigan Sales Tax Guide for Remote sellers
- Michigan Sales Tax Guide for Marketplace Providers and Marketplace Sellers
Michigan’s base or statewide sales tax rate is 6.00%. Unlike most states, there are no local sales tax rates in Michigan.
Sales & Use Tax Rates in Michigan
The combined Michigan state + local sales and use tax rates for the largest 30 cities are listed below.
I Should Have Collected Michigan Sales Tax, But I Didn’t
Unlike many of our competitors who offer a one size fits all solution and blindly suggest filing a Voluntary Disclosure Agreement (VDA) in each state, our sales tax professionals will work with you to determine the best and most cost-effective solution for your business.
If you determine your business has nexus but you have not collected Michigan sales tax, the primary options are to:
- Register and pay back taxes, penalties, and interest, or
- Complete a Voluntary Disclosure Request
Here is what you need to know about each option to make the best decision for your business:
Option 1: Register to Pay Back Taxes, Penalties, and Interest
Sometimes the best solution for a business is simply to register with Michigan and pay back taxes, penalties, and interest. A VDA is not cost-effective if the past liabilities and penalties are minimal. Be wary of the tax professionals that recommend doing a VDA in these cases, they are looking to make a buck rather than looking out for your best interests. If you’re unsure what your past liabilities are, contact us and one of our state tax professionals will work with you to conduct an analysis and help you make the right choice for your business.
When to consider registration and payment:
- If you established nexus less than 3 or 4 years ago.
- The sales tax penalty is LESS than the professional fees charged for the VDA.
- Your business does NOT have a sales tax collected issue.
Beware: registering does not generally eliminate past liabilities
Option 2: Voluntary Disclosure Agreement (VDA)
In many situations, voluntary disclosures are a useful tool to reduce extended periods of past exposure. For example, if you should have been collecting sales tax for 10 years, the voluntary disclosure limits the lookback period to 3-4 years. As a result, the benefit of doing a VDA often turns on:
- Whether the VDA limits lookback period. i.e. – you established nexus more than 3 or 4 years ago.
- The sales tax penalty savings is MORE than the professional fees charged for the VDA.
- You have a sales tax collected but not remitted issue.
I Received a Michigan Sales and Use Tax Audit Notice, What Should I Do?
Michigan regularly audits businesses that are required to charge, collect, and remit various taxes in the state. Businesses that receive sales and use tax audit notice should consider the following:
- Unless you have experience handling Michigan sales and use tax audits, how can you trust that the state’s auditor is abiding by the rules and following proper procedure?
- How will you know when to provide documents or when to push back?
- Do you have a thorough understanding of your sales and use tax areas of exposure?
- Controlling the audit is paramount to the limiting exposure and shaping the results. Are you confident in doing that on your own?
If you are unsure of the answer to these questions and you do not have experience handling Michigan sales tax audits, hiring a professional might be right for you. Contact us and learn how our sales tax professionals can give you the peace-of-mind and confidence you need during your audit.
Please visit our resource pages for more detailed information and to help you evaluate critical decisions during your Michigan sales and use tax audit.
- The Audit Overview & Selection Process
- The General Audit Process
- Statute of Limitations Extensions & Issues
- Managing the Sales Tax Auditor
Michigan Sales Tax Audit Process
The audit process usually follows the process laid out in this flowchart. See the detailed guidance for each stage of the process in the sections below.
What to Expect After You Receive a Michigan Sales and Use Tax Audit Notice (Michigan Routine Audit Letter)
Many audits begin with a call out of the blue from a Michigan Department of Treasury’s sales tax auditor. Shortly after the call, your business will receive an audit notice which confirms that you were lucky enough to be chosen for a Michigan sales and use tax audit. To prepare for the audit, it is likely a good idea to start by getting a state and local tax professional involved.
What to Expect from A Michigan Sales Tax Auditor
- Auditor will conduct pre audit research.
- Auditor will often schedule and perform an entrance conference.
- Records will be requested (many of which the auditor is not entitled to and does not need).
What to Expect During the Audit
Once the necessary records are received, the auditor will:
- Conduct the audit by comparing your Michigan sales and use tax returns to your federal income tax returns or bank statements to determine whether all applicable sales, or gross sales, were reported on your Michigan sales tax return(s).
NOTE: A slight error in how tax was charged on even a single type of transaction, when multiplied over three years, can add up to a considerable sales tax liability.
- Once the auditor is confident all sales are accounted for, they will review your exempt and out-of-state sales.
Conduct a use tax audit – the auditor will request a detail of certain
documents / accounts to make sure use tax was properly paid on applicable
purchases. Common areas audited include:
- Advertising Expense
- Auto & Truck Expense
- Repair and Maintenance
- Rent (including related party rent)
- Office Expense
- Miscellaneous Expense
Despite publications to the contrary, if a business buys an item online without paying use tax, the business still has an obligation to remit the tax to Michigan. This often leads to shocking results for the unsuspecting taxpayer during an audit.
After the Audit – Understand and Defend Your Businesses Rights
Upon completion of the audit, there will usually be an exit conference with the auditor. The auditor will produce an audit report with corresponding workpapers to support the Michigan sales and use tax assessment. It is advisable to have a sales tax professional present during this meeting as this is your first opportunity to see the auditor’s findings and push back on areas where they have overstepped their bounds or misapplied Michigan’ sales tax laws.
We recommend businesses refrain from agreeing to the sales tax assessment until a sales tax professional has reviewed it for issues that should be challenged. Many businesses wind up drastically overpaying the state because the business owner or in-house accounting personnel were not well versed in the sales tax laws that, if challenged, could have reduced their Michigan sales tax liability.
The process of challenging a Michigan sales tax audit assessment is discussed in detail in the following sections.
Michigan Sales Tax Audit Protest Process Flow Chart
NOTE: If the deadlines are missed, you have a short period of time to pay the tax and seek a refund. If that deadline is also missed, it can be very difficult to get case reopened.
Contesting Audit Findings with the Auditor
After an audit, the auditor will issue a Michigan Notification of Audit Results (AKA the audit report). This document details the auditor’s findings so it’s important to carefully review and understand its implications. Any issues with the results are handled as follows:
30 days to contest findings with the auditor.
- Documentational issues (exemption certificates, proof tax was paid, etc.) and calculations are worth addressing with the auditor.
- Legal interpretations of sales tax law are often not resolvable at this stage.
- If a resolution cannot be reached with the auditor, the next step is to appeal/protest the issue with the Michigan Department of Treasury.
Appeal / Protest with the Michigan Department of Treasury
Any contested issues that were unresolved prior to the audit report being issued can be protested / appealed by the auditee. This is done after the Michigan Department of Treasury issues the Intent to Assess (Bill for Taxes Due)
- A protest / appeal must be done within 60 days of the Intent to Assess.
- If you miss the 60 days, in some cases you have may have additional time to pay the tax and file a refund claim.
- If both periods are missed, the assessment becomes final, and it is very difficult to reopen the audit.
If you have received a Notification of Audit Results and have not at least talked to someone experienced in Michigan State and Local tax, now is the time before these deadlines are missed.
If you cannot resolve the Michigan sales and use tax dispute through the protest / appeal process, the Michigan Department of Treasury will issue a Final Assessment. The Final Assessment gives you the opportunity to file in Michigan’s tax / administrative court, which is called the Michigan Tax Tribunal. There are important deadlines in this phase of the process as well, such as 60 days to file in administrative court.
Michigan Sales Tax Auditor Playbooks
What better way to know what the other team might have in store than to read their playbook? We can’t think of anything either. So, we compiled these links to the manuals provided by the Michigan Department of Treasury to their auditors for conducting audits of various industries.
Settling a Michigan Sales Tax Liability
Along the way, or even after one the critical notices are issued, there is the possibility to settle your Michigan sales tax case by negotiating with the Michigan Department of Treasury. Often, you can get better results here than with the auditor. If you or your professional seldom does state and local tax work, it might be difficult to evaluate fair versus unreasonable settlements. DO NOT try to negotiate a settlement without an experienced Michigan state and local tax lawyer or other professional.
Contest a Michigan Jeopardy Assessment
Michigan may issue a Notice of Jeopardy Determination in certain situations. The jeopardy assessment gives Michigan Department of Treasury accelerated rights and it may immediately begin to try and collect. Due to the jeopardy nature, the taxpayer only has 20 days to contest the assessment and must place a security deposit to fight the issue.
Michigan Administrative Court
If you cannot resolve the case within the agency or missed your deadlines, you still have one last shot to fight your Michigan sales tax assessment by going to the Michigan Tax Tribunal. Although we generally don’t recommend it, you always have the option to skip the agency protest process and file in administrative court. That said, because neither party wants to spend the time and resources on the uncertainty of administrative court, continuing to challenge the assessment is often an effective way to maximize your settlement potential.
If your case is filed in administrative court, and the case proceeds to hearing, it is heard and decided by a neutral administrative law judge. Our team has handled hundreds of administrative court cases and can help your company receive the resolution it is entitled to. It is very similar to a court hearing and having an experienced representative is imperative.